Management Discussion and Analysis
Mahindra & Mahindra Limited ("M&M") or ("Mahindra") is theflagship brand of the Mahindra Group which consists of 132 companies with diversebusinesses across the globe and aggregate revenues of US $ 15.4 billion. The year 201112was a challenging one with many shocks in the global and domestic environment. YourCompany was undeterred by these difficulties, and fortified by its Rise philosophy ofaccepting no limits, thinking innovatively and driving positive change in the lives ofothers, has raised the bar for itself in its global ambitions. In December 2011, the Grouparticulated its aspiration statement to make Mahindra one of the world's 50 most admiredbrands by 2021, by helping people everywhere to Rise.
The Automotive and Farm Equipment Sectors of M&M continued to work together withdistinct and strong customer focus at the front end and structured synergy at the backend. In Financial Year 2011-2012, your Company sold 4,69,345 vehicles (a growth of 28.9%over the previous year) while tractor sales added up to 2,36,666 tractors (a growth of10.4% over the previous year).
The Automotive and Farm Equipment Sectors, along with their subsidiary companies andjoint ventures, achieved global sales of 8,73,646 vehicles and tractors (5,98,370 vehiclesand 2,75,276 tractors).
The Indian automotive industry comprises of a number of Indian-origin and multinationalplayers with varying degree of presence in different segments. Today, nine of the top tenglobal automotive manufacturers have a presence in India which clearly points to itsimportance as a strategic market.
Similarly, the domestic tractor market also has a mix of Indian-origin andinternational manufacturers and is segmented by horsepower into the sub 30 HP segment, the30-40 HP segment, the 40-50 HP segment and the higher segment of above 50 HP.
Industry Overview and Trends Global Automotive Industry
After witnessing robust growth during Calendar Year 2010, the global automotiveindustry once again hit a rough patch in Calendar Year 2011. This was due to economicuncertainty in various parts of the world, as well as the natural disasters that tookplace in Japan and Thailand. During Calendar Year 2011, global automotive industryproduction grew by just 3.2%, as compared to about 25.8% in Calendar Year 2010. Source:OICA (Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles).
China, the growth engine of the global automotive industry, slowed down to just 0.8%growth as against 32.4% in the previous year. Also, during the year, USA overtook Japan asthe world's second largest automobile producer. This was the result of demand picking upin the US market as well as the adverse impact on Japan's production due to the earthquakein Fukushima. USA posted 11.5% growth in automotive production which is the highest amongthe top five auto producing nations and second only to Mexico, among the top ten autoproducing nations.
India maintained its rank as the world's 6th largest automobile producingcountry but its growth slowed down to 10.7% in Calendar Year 2011, as compared to 34.7% inthe previous year.
Indian Automotive Industry
In spite of the challenging macroeconomic environment -both domestic and global - theIndian automotive industry (excluding two wheelers) crossed the 3.9 million mark andregistered a growth of 6.2% during Financial Year 2011-12. The passenger vehicle segmentgrew by 4.7%, with domestic sales crossing 2.6 million vehicles. Within this segment, thepassenger car segment grew by 2.2%, the multipurpose vehicle (MPV) segment grew by 10.0%and the utility vehicle (UV) segment registered a growth of 16.5%.
The Commercial Vehicle (CV) segment grew by 18.2%. This growth was principally drivenby an increase of 27.4% in the Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) segment. The Medium and
Heavy Commercial Vehicles (MHCV) segment grew by 7.9%. Within the LCV segment, thegrowth was greatest in the less than 2 tonne segment (growth of 31.3%) and the 2-3.5 tonnesegment (growth of 34.8%).
The three wheeler segment de-grew 2.4% during the year. The three wheeler goods segmentgrew by 6.3%, while the three wheeler passenger segment witnessed a de-growth of 4.5%.
During Financial Year 2011-12, the two-wheeler segment grew by 14.2%. Within twowheelers, scooters / scooterettes grew by 24.5%, motorcycles / step-throughs by 12.01% andmopeds by 11.4%.
The growth across several segments of the Indian Automotive Industry was significantlylower than projected by SIAM (Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers) at the beginningof the year. This was due to factors such as uncertainty over economic growth, highvehicle financing rates, high inflation leading to less discretionary expenses, rise incommodity prices leading to increase in vehicle prices and hike in fuel costs.
The adverse impact on industry growth was also because of short supply of vehicles dueto prolonged labour unrest at a major automotive manufacturer as mentioned in severalmedia reports, capacity shortage in various links of the automotive supply chain anddisruption of components supply from Thailand which suffered the onslaught of floods.
The table below summarises the growth of the various segments of the Indian Automotiveindustry as compared to the previous year.
|Segment || |
Total Domestic Sales
Industry Growth (%)
| ||Financial Year 2010 ||Financial Year 2011 ||Financial Year 2012 ||Financial Year 2011 ||Financial Year 2012 |
|Passenger Cars ||1,528,337 ||1,972,845 ||2,016,115 ||29.1 ||2.2 |
|Utility Vehicles ||272,740 ||315,123 ||367,012 ||15.5 ||16.5 |
|MPV (Vans) ||150,256 ||213,574 ||234,945 ||42.1 ||10.0 |
|Passenger Vehicles ||1,951,333 ||2,501,542 ||2,618,072 ||28.2 ||4.7 |
|MHCV ||244,944 ||323,059 ||348,701 ||31.9 ||7.9 |
|MHCV Passenger || |
|MHCV Goods || |
|LCV ||287,777 ||361,846 ||460,831 ||25.7 ||27.4 |
|LCV Passenger || |
|LCV Goods < 2T GVW || |
|LCV Goods 2-3.5T GVW || || |
| || |
|LCV Goods > 3.5T GVW || |
|Total CV ||532,721 ||684,905 ||809,532 ||28.6 ||18.2 |
|3W ||440,392 ||526,024 ||513,251 ||19.4 ||-2.4 |
|3W Passenger || |
|3W Goods || |
|2W ||9,370,951 ||11,768,910 ||13,435,769 ||25.6 ||14.2 |
|Total Domestic ||12,295,397 ||15,481,381 ||17,376,624 ||25.9 ||12.2 |
|Domestic (Excl. 2W) ||2,924,446 ||3,712,471 ||3,940,855 ||26.9 ||6.2 |
Source: Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM)
Indian Tractor industry
The Indian tractor market, the world's largest, continued on its upward trajectory totouch 5,35,210 tractors, a growth of 11.4% over the previous year. This was on the back oftwo years of high growth of 32% and 20%, respectively. While increasing cost and scarcityof farm labour, normal monsoons and continued government support for agriculture and ruralIndia continued to fuel this growth, the bumper agri production from November onwardsresulted in a correction in prices of agri produce, impacting liquidity and slowing demandin most states across the country.
Looking at the various tractor segments, volume growth has been led mainly by twosegments, namely the <30 HP segment and the >50 HP segment. In the <30 HPsegment, the Mahindra Yuvraj 215 created a space of its own, single handedly drivinggrowth in a category which was otherwise witnessing a decline. At the other end of thespectrum, >50 HP - the segment of the future - grew over 15%.
Across the country, tractor growth was concentrated around a few major states likeRajasthan with over 50% and Gujarat and Tamil Nadu with around 25-30%. Karnataka, UttarPradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra recorded single digit growth rates.
Your Company's performance
Automotive Sector - towards new frontiers
During the year under review, your Company achieved many milestones and landmarks onits journey to becoming a globally recognised automotive brand. The Sector launchedseveral new products in various segments and also received numerous awards and accolades.
In September 2011, the Sector launched the eagerly awaited XUV500. Inspired by theworld's most agile animal, the Cheetah, the XUV500 received an overwhelming response fromboth customers as well as the automotive fraternity. Designed and developed in-house byMahindra, it is your Company's first global SUV platform, with significant inputs onstyling and development from customers across the globe. The Mahindra XUV500 offersbenefits such as aspirational style, technologically advanced features, safety, comfortand convenience at a very competitive price. These features have hitherto been seen onlyin high-end SUVs. Within just a few months of its launch, it received 22 awards -testimony to its mass appeal and value for money proposition. The XUV500 was launchedsimultaneously in India and South Africa, a first for the Indian Automotive Industry.
The Sector - including Mahindra Navistar Automotives Limited (MNAL), a subsidiary ofyour Company - achieved overall volumes of 4,53,987 vehicles in the domestic market, asignificant growth of 26.8%. Healthy growth in UV volumes, entry into newer segments andgood growth across the entire product range are some of the major factors that contributedto this growth.
As a result of this good performance, your Company's market share increased to 11.5% inFinancial Year 2011-12 as compared to 9.6% in the previous year.
The table below summarises your Company's performance across all industry segments.
|Segment || |
M&M Mkt. Share
| ||Financial Year 2012 Actual ||Growth ||Financial Year 2012 Actual ||Growth ||Financial Year 2012 ||Financial Year 2011 |
|UV Total ||202,217 ||19.5% ||367,012 ||16.5% ||55.1% ||53.7% |
|MPV Total ||25,644 ||NM ||234,945 ||10.0% ||10.9% ||0.5% |
|Verito ||17,839 ||78.2% ||187,026 ||31.8% ||9.5% ||7.1% |
|LCV<2 ||53,895 ||23.3% ||251,186 ||31.3% ||21.5% ||22.8% |
|2T > LCV < 3.5T ||73,134 ||20.1% ||110,006 ||34.8% ||66.5% ||74.4% |
|3 W Total ||67,440 ||8.5% ||513,251 ||-2.4% ||13.1% ||11.8% |
|AD (Dom.) Total ||440,169 ||26.9% ||1,663,426 ||13.2% ||26.5% ||23.6% |
|LCV >3.5T Total ||10,328 ||0.9% ||99,639 ||12.1% ||10.4% ||11.5% |
|MHCV (Load) ||3,490 ||NM ||299,309 ||8.8% ||1.2% ||0.3% |
|MNAL Total ||13,818 ||24.7% ||398,948 ||9.6% ||3.5% ||3.0% |
|AS (Dom.) Total ||453,987 ||26.8% ||2,062,374 ||12.5% ||22.0% ||19.5% |
NM = Not Material
At the forefront of the industry
Your Company strengthened its leadership position in the domestic UtilityVehicle (UV) market by selling a record 2,02,217 UVs, posting a growth of 19.5% over theprevious year. M&M's market share in the domestic UV market stood at 55.1 % for theFinancial Year 2011 -12, as against 53.7%> in the previous year.
During this year, the Bolero became the first Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) inIndia to cross the 1 lac milestone. This tough and rugged UV thus retains the title ofIndia's largest selling SUV for the 6th consecutive year. It is also the 7thhighest selling passenger vehicle in India.
The Scorpio continues to strengthen its iconic status with sales of over 50,000units in 2011-12.
In the MPV segment, your Company has garnered market share of 10.9%> withinthe last one year. In the highly competitive < 2 tonne Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)segment, the Company's market share stands at 21.5%.
Your Company is the market leader in the 2-3.5 tonne LCV segment with a marketshare of 66.5%>.
During the previous year, your Company had bought over the shareholding of itsjoint venture partner in Mahindra Automobile Distributor Private Limited. This led to theLogan being re-launched under the Mahindra badge as the Verito. The newVerito retainsthefamed strengths of the Logan, while adding a new style with some key changes. The salesfor the Verito have since been continuously improving with 17,839 units sold in 2011-12 -a growth of 78.2% over the previous year.
In the MHCV segment, MNAL's range of sturdy yet stylish trucks have receivedencouraging customer feedback with its market share standing at 1.2%.
Delighting the customer
At Mahindra, customers are at the core of its business. All products and initiativescater to the diverse needs of its varied customers. In addition to the highly acclaimedXUV500, all new products and initiatives launched in 2011-12 received an excellentresponse.
In February, 2012, Mahindra unveiled the Stylish New Xylo which sports 50 newchanges and features. The new version includes five variants powered by three distinctengine options, including the powerful 120 BHP mHawk engine. The Stylish New Xylo alsoboasts of a pioneering Voice Command Technology which allows the driver to control overthirty features in the car, merely by talking to it! This makes the Xylo convenient andvery enjoyable to drive.
In September 2011, Mahindra launched the New Bolero with better driveability andexcellent fuel efficiency, powered by the refined and peppy new m2DiCR engine. Itincorporates new technology features like Digital Cluster with Driver Information System(DIS) and a digital Engine Immobilizer. India's most popular UV also sports a stylish newdashboard, wood-finish central console and all-new seats and upholstery.
In April 2011, Mahindra launched the Maxximo Mini Van, a next generationpassenger carrier developed on the technologically superior Maxximo platform. This stylishpeople mover is set to redefine the entry-level contract carriage and stage carriagesegments in India. Equipped with best-in-class comfort and safety features and powered bythe advanced C2 CRDe fuel-efficient diesel engine, the Maxximo Mini Van is competitivelypriced.
During the year, MNAL launched the MN31 cowl which received an enthusiasticresponse in the market. With its pan India commercial launch in December 2011 which saw itemerge as a full range Commercial Vehicle (CV) player, MNAL is a force to reckon with inthe Commercial Vehicle segment.
Automotive Sector - Overseas Operations
During this year, your Company launched the Genio double cab for overseasmarkets at a special event in Mumbai which was also attended by global media.
The Automotive Sector of your Company exported a total of 29,176 vehicles during theyear 2011-12, posting an impressive growth of 70.2% over the previous year. This growthwas predominantly on account of favourable market response in neighbouring countries forMahindra's range of products. Since 2006, the Company has been working on the developmentof a vehicle for the US market. However, your Company recently decided not to proceedfurther with the project due to changes in the US regulatory and market situation. YourCompany will continue to monitor the US situation and remain flexible with its approach tothis market.
During the previous year, the Automotive Sector of your Company took twosignificant steps on its journey towards becoming a globally recognised automotivemanufacturer. It acquired a majority stake in Reva Electric Car Company Private Limited(since rechristened as Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles Private Limited) and in March 2011,it completed the acquisition of a majority shareholding and management control in SouthKorea's Ssangyong Motor Company Limited (SYMC).
Mahindra Reva displayed the prototype of its all new electric car, the NXR, atthe Delhi Auto show in January 2012 which attracted considerable interest from both themedia and visitors. The car is expected to be launched in the second half of FinancialYear 2012-13.
The acquisition of SYMC is a significant step towards realising your Company'sglobal ambitions. Over the last 12 months, satisfactory progress has been made in creatingsynergy in the areas of product development, sourcing and channel sharing. Work ondevelopment of new vehicle and engine platforms has been initiated and is progressingwell.
In March 2010, Mahindra Vehicle Manufacturers Limited (MVML), a 100% subsidiaryof your Company, set up its manufacturing plant in Chakan near Pune. Spread over 700 acreswith capacity to manufacture 3,00,000 vehicles in phase one, the facility will cater tofuture demand for new products, making it a critical component of your Company's business.
This state-of-the-art facility has the capability to manufacture a wide variety ofvehicles, ranging from small commercial vehicles and heavy commercial vehicles to modernSUVs and construction equipment. Products manufactured here include the XUV500, the GenioPick Up and the Maxximo range of vehicles, as well as the Mahindra Navistar range oftrucks and the Mahindra EarthMaster range of construction equipment. In its second year ofoperation, MVML Chakan manufactured 1,16,502 vehicles, a substantial increase as comparedto 40,954 vehicles manufactured in the previous year.
In April 2012, your Company inaugurated its world class engineering and researchand development centre, Mahindra Research Valley (MRV), in Chennai. Spread over 125 acresin Mahindra World City, MRV bears testimony to the Mahindra Group's commitment totechnology-driven innovation and is the cradle of its future. It houses automobile as wellas tractor engineering research and product development divisions under one roof andenables close and creative collaboration between engineers and researchers. This facilitywas created at an investment of over Rs. 650 crores. Home to over 1,500 employees, it hasexperts who are leading various technology and product development projects.
Farm Equipment Sector
With its quest to deliver 'Farm Tech Prosperity' to the Indian farmer, Financial Year2012 saw numerous initiatives by the Sector in the area of farm mechanisation and acrossthe agriculture value chain.
Tractor and Farm Mechanisation Business
In Financial Year 2012, Mahindra retained its leadership in the domestic tractor marketfor the 29th consecutive year, with a 41.4% market share. In this period, yourCompany sold 2,36,666 tractors underthe Mahindra and Swaraj brands, as against 2,14,325tractors sold in the previous year - a 10.4%) increase.
In the less than 30 HP segment, the Mahindra Yuvraj 215, which aims to provide the vastnumber of small and marginal farmers with affordable mechanisation, practically doubledits volumes over the last year, with sales of 10,760 units this year. Strengthening theSwaraj presence in this segment was the Swaraj 724 Orchard, which also focused on thisniche but growing segment.
In the 30-40 HP segment, the largest segment in the tractor industry, customer optionswere further enhanced with the launch of the 35 HP Mahindra 265 Power Plus in March 2012.This product will gradually be rolled out across the country in Financial Year 2013. Thislaunch was accompanied by the introduction of 'Robolift' hydraulics which deliver superiorprecision, better uniformity and the ability to optimise performance in a range ofagricultural applications.
In the 40-50 HP segment, the Swaraj 855 XM series with side shift was also launched.
As far as the over 50 HP segment is concerned, the Arjun Multi Application Tractor(MAT) launched last year has been well accepted in the market, contributing to the 50%>market share of the Farm Equipment Sector in this segment.
Bolstering this leadership was the introduction of the Arjun International 8085. Thisproduct represents a quantum leap in technology and comfort, giving the affluent and oftendemanding Indian farmer a world class experience.
Your Company was also among the first manufacturers in the country to prepare itselffor the advent of Trem III A norms in this segment by not only meeting these stringentemission norms but also by retaining an edge over competition in terms of fuel efficiency.The product's superiority, coupled with unmatched service quality and reach have resultedin the highest customer satisfaction in the industry.
The Sector continued to expand its global footprint with a focus on the key markets ofUSA and China, amongst other regions.
In China, the second largest tractor market in the world, Mahindra volumes from the twoJoint Ventures, Mahindra (China) Tractor Company Limited (MCTCL) and Mahindra YuedaYancheng Tractor Company Limited (MYYTCL), crossed the 30,000 mark for the first time.Mahindra retained its position amongst the top five brands in this market. While domesticvolumes grew to 26,444 tractors, an increase of 11%>, exports from China grew by ahealthy 20%> to 5,244 units. Amongst many highlights was the inauguration of MYYTCL'sintegrated manufacturing facility which has the capacity to produce over 40,000 tractors.
Mahindra USA crossed the 10,000 volume markforthe second time in its history. Thisrepresents a strong growth of 35% and a gain in market share. Compact and Cabin tractormodels introduced in the last couple of years, combined with high customer and dealersatisfaction levels for both products and service have been major contributors to thissuccess. The 4025 4WD was also launched in this market and received a good response fromcustomers, strengthening the Mahindra portfolio in the USA.
Rest of the World
The growth story for Financial Year 2012 was characterised by the success of theSector's African operations, with 77% increase seen in this market over the last year. Theintroduction of the 90HP tractor to the Sector's portfolio contributed to thisperformance. The Sector's nascent presence in South America and Turkey were the other keyareas of growth. Turkish operations saw strengthening of the distribution network,together with product portfolio augmentation due to the launch of a number of models fromthe '30 series' of tractors. Your Company continued its strong performance in the SAARCregion with over 40% market share in both Nepal and Bangladesh, though with limited volumegrowth due to a challenging business environment in these markets.
Mechanisation (Mahindra AppliTrac) - Towards Agri Prosperity
With labour scarcity becoming an ever increasing challenge for farmers across thecountry, mechanisation of most agricultural operations is the way forward. This hasfuelled demand for better and more efficient equipment across the spectrum of operations.AppliTrac continued to grow the market for mechanisation in the country, playing its partin boosting agricultural productivity.
Mahindra Gyrovator-The pride of the rotavation range of equipment in theAppliTrac stable, this product has been well accepted by the Indian farmer by virtue ofits sheer performance, placing it in a league of its own. As a result, overall sales ofrotavation equipment grew by over 30% over last year.
New mechanisation solutions - Due to increasing labour scarcity, more and moreagri operations are moving towards mechanisation. To meet emerging needs in this segment,AppliTrac introduced three new products this year - sprayers, shredders and mulchers, thusexpanding the range of options available to the Indian farmer.
Construction Equipment - Mahindra EarthMaster creates an impact
This nascent business has made rapid strides in the last one year, with the MahindraEarthMaster well accepted by the customer, both for its performance and unmatched value.With expansion of the sales networkgathering steam, the construction equipment businesshas achieved sales of over 800 Mahindra EarthMaster backhoe loaders, making its way intothe list of top six players for backhoe loaders in the country.
Agriculture - sowing the seeds for India's future Agriculture Inputs
The Sector offers a whole range of crop care solutions, especially seeds, herbicides,pesticides, fungicides and micro nutrients. Eight new products were launched this year,creating a great deal of excitement and aiding in its best ever performance.
Your Company acquired a 38% stake in EPC Industrie Limited, one of India's leadingmicro-irrigation companies, in February last year, to gain a foothold in this space. Thisyear, the focus was on growth, with a nearly 50% increase in top line. Micro-irrigationoffers tremendous benefits to the farmer which include over 25% water savings, reducedexpenditure on labour and fertiliser and higher productivity. By virtue of thisdevelopment, your Company will be able to help the farmer to better utilise scarce waterresources and thereby contribute to overall water conservation in the country.
By the end of the previous financial year, over 155 Mahindra Samriddhi centres becameoperational. Each Samriddhi Centre offers innovativefarmingtechnologiesthattransform thelivesof farmers by helping them to improve productivity.The Mahindra Samriddhi India AgriAwards continues to be the premier event in the field of agriculture for the secondconsecutive year. The event, which was graced by the Honourable Union Minister forAgriculture, Mr. Sharad Pawar, and other leading luminaries from the field of agriculture,honoured the torch bearers of farm prosperity from across the nation.
Mahindra Powerol - powering India
For Mahindra Powerol, FinancialYear2012wasan inflection point. In spite of continuedchallenging circumstances, the business focussed on expanding markets. A quantum leap inexports and growth in DG (Diesel Genset) sales in the retail space enabled a reversal offortune, getting Powerol back onto the path of top line growth. Despite a subdued marketfor engines and DGs for the telecom sector, Mahindra Powerol has further strengthened itsdominance with market share crossing 50% in powergen for telecom.
On the product front, the DG range has been widened with the introduction of 2.5kVA and5kVA DG sets, extending the range right from 2.5kVA to 500kVA. In addition, MahindraPowerol's focus on customer centricity has been applauded and has won the Companyindustry-wide recognition.
Opportunities and threats
In spite of some current concerns, the growth forecast for the Indian economy remainshealthy. With the resulting increase in income levels and lifestyle aspirations, thepotential size of the Indian passenger vehicle market in the next five years is likely tobe as large as 4-5 million vehicles with a conservative growth rate of 10-12% per yea r.
The current low vehicle penetration of 15 vehicles per 1,000 population (compared to anaverage of 120 vehicles per 1,000 population for the world) also suggests that there aresignificant growth opportunities for the industry. Given the importance of the automobileindustry to the economy, its potential for employment and due to its backward and forwardlinkages with many Sectors, the Government is keen to support its development.
On the other hand, there is continuous pressure globally to reduce emissions fromautomobiles, leading to the need for ongoing investments in technology upgradation andalternate energy across the automotive value chain. Growing environmental consciousnessamong consumers, Government regulations to manage traffic congestion, as well asimprovement in public transport infrastructure is a trend that will have significantimpact on the future of the automotive industry. Automobile manufacturers such as yourCompany have to monitor such trends carefully and adapt to them quickly.
Similarly, for Commercial Vehicles, the growth in agriculture and industrialproduction, the spread of organised retail and the growing prevalence of the hub-and-spokemodel for transportation of goods will lead to a significant expansion of the overallmarket size. The expected introduction in the medium to long term of more stringent normsrelated to overloading of goods vehicles and roadworthiness and vehicle age will also leadto considerable expansion in the market for CVs.
Farm Equipment Sector
Continued support from the Government for agriculture and rural development, broadbasing of the rural economy, greater adoption of improved agricultural practices(mechanisation, micro-irrigation, hybrid seeds, nutrient based fertiliser application,etc.) are positive developments that will drive sustainable agriculture and rural growth.
Despite having the second largest area of arable land in the world and favourableenvironmental conditions, lower than world average yields have limited India'sagricultural output. Having taken on the goal of'Delivering Farm Tech Prosperity' and withthe creation of the agribusiness vertical, your Company is geared to contribute in thisarea.
Within India, there are several areas of low tractor penetration, especially among thelarge base of small and marginal farmers. With increasing cost and scarcity of farmlabour, greater adoption of various forms of mechanisation is the way forward. These areopportunities which your Company is well positioned to tap.
The Indian domestic tractor market, having recorded a significant growth in the lasttwo financial years, is expected to see more competition among existing players.International brands have been investing in capacity augmentation and are graduallyincreasing their market share. Increased competition will lead to more frequent productlaunches in all industry segments and raise customer expectations in terms of performance,quality and technology, leading to higher costs. Your Company views this as both anopportunity and a challenge.
Power shortage remains a reality across the country with power capacity additions notkeeping up with demand growth.This is an opportunity for your Company to continue to offerpower solutions to retail and institutional customers in urban and rural centres,increasing their realm of possibility.
Risks and Concerns - Automotive and Farm Equipment Sectors
The Company's business is exposed to many internal and external risks. Your Company hasput in place robust systems and processes, along with appropriate review mechanisms toactively monitor, manage and mitigate these risks.
On the back of a strong increase in commodity prices in Financial Year 2010-11 (evenhigher than the previous record highs of Financial Year 2008-09), the Financial Year2011-12 saw a firming up of prices in the international market, leading to a moderateincrease in commodity prices in the domestic market. This trend is expected to continueinto Financial Year 2012-13, putting pressure on margins. Your Company will continue tofocus on cost re-engineering to minimise the impact of this development.
With the rapid growth in demand, some of the Company's key suppliers occasionally facecapacity constraints and are unable to meet demand peaks. This could lead to potentialloss of volumes and market share. The Company is working closely with its key suppliers tominimise such supply constraints through capacity planning, capacity enhancement andlonger term contracts. Opportunities for global sourcing are also being actively explored.
Keeping in mind the high growth potential of the Indian Automotive market, all OriginalEquipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are actively investing in new product development andproduct technology upgrades. Multinational players are increasingly becoming India focusedand are developing products which are built around the needs of the Indian customer. Withincreased local sourcing and development taking place in India, cost structures ofmultinational corporations are becoming competitive.
Your Company continues to invest in new product development as well as technologyupgrades and will focus on delivering customer centric products. Frugal innovation remainsa thrust area for the Company as it moves forward.
In India, there is a large differential between taxes levied on small cars and largervehicles. With the resulting lower price tag for small cars, many customers may opt topostpone large car purchases or buy a small car which could impact the growth of UVs andthe large car segment. Your Company is working on plans to meet the changing regulatoryenvironment.
Many State Governments have increased the registration tax for diesel vehicles. Almostall of your Company's UV models are diesel powered and an increase in prices can have anegative impact on demand.
Environment and Alternate fuels
Stringent regulatory norms are being introduced to safeguard the environment,especially in the area of emissions.
With the price of crude oil rising significantly over the past few months, automotivefuel prices are likely to face upward pressure. Today, diesel fuel is subsidised by theGovernment and is priced lower than petrol. However, this price differential will reduceif the Government decontrols diesel prices. Any reduction in the price differentialbetween petrol and diesel fuels may have an adverse impact on the demand of your Company'sproducts, as almost all products are diesel powered.
At present, there is customer demand for vehicles powered by CNG, LPG and electricbatteries, as well as hybrid powertrains and the Government is also promoting these. YourCompany is well prepared to meet these demands. It has proactively invested in developmentof vehicles that run on CNG, bio-diesel and hydrogen. Further, substantial progress hasbeen made for development of a hybrid powertrain. Your Company is very actively working ondevelopment of an electric vehicle portfolio through its subsidiary, Mahindra RevaElectric Vehicles Private Limited.
Your Company has also developed tractors and gensets capable of running on bio-dieselwhich are also a benchmark for fuel efficiency.
Financial Market Conditions
With the objective of curbing inflation, the Reserve Bank of India raised its policyrates significantly in 2011-12. This in turn, led to an increase in vehicle financingrates and adversely impacted vehicle sales. Availability of credit and affordable interestrates are important facilitators for automobile and tractor sales. In April 2012, therewas a reduction in the financing rates and this should provide some support to the demand.However, to address this risk, your Company has entered into several strategic tie-upswith multiple banks and financing companies for providing preferential terms of financingto customers.
Given the uncertainty prevailing in many parts of the world, especially with respect tothe Eurozone, slowdown in China and the growth outlook for India, the outlook for FIIinflows and exchange rates is difficult to predict. This has implications for theprofitability of your Company's overseas operations which are a key thrust area. A rupeeappreciation could be a risk for both the Automotive and Farm Equipment Sectors. However,your Company as a practice, hedges currency exposure appropriately, thus limiting theimpact of risk.
With increase in global sourcing activity and incorporation of advanced technology innew products, the import exposure for your Company is increasing. Rupee depreciation couldhave an adverse impact in the future. Your Company is working with its supplier fraternityto minimise the import exposure by localising import content.
In order to meet customer needs and competition, your Company is investing in anaggressive new product development programme. Success of new product launches will have animportant bearing on its future growth and profitability.
A normal monsoon is vital for both agriculture as well as the rural economy. Thetractor business in particular and the automotive business to some degree, run the risk ofa drop in demand in case of a significant variation in the monsoon, both positive andnegative. In addition, an untimely monsoon also has the potential of adversely impactingthe business.
Outlook - Automotive & Farm Equipment Sectors
Both the Automotive and Farm Equipment Sectors with their updated product portfoliosand continued exploration of global horizons will strive to maintain their leadershipposition in their respective markets. Simultaneously, your Company will continue its focuson achieving cost leadership through focused cost optimisation, value engineering,improved efficiency measures like supply chain management, countrywide connectivity of allits suppliers and dealers and exploiting synergies between its Sectors. The long termoutlook for the automotive industry is bright and robust, though in the near term thereare some challenges relating to the external environment. Inflation, interest rates, fuelprices and commodity prices could dampen consumer confidence and sentiment which hasalways been a key determinant of automobile sales.
In the long term, the Indian economy is projected to grow rapidly and demand conditionsare expected to remain strong. According to SIAM long term forecasts, the Indianautomobile industry is expected to grow at an annual average rate of 10-15%. However, inthe near term, there are challenges as outlined above which will have a bearing on demandand OEM profitability.
For Financial Year 2012-13, SIAM has projected a growth of 10-12% for the personalvehicle segment and 9-11% for the commercial vehicle segment.
Similarly, in the case of tractors, the long term outlook continues to be positive withthe tractor industry expected to continue to grow with a CAGR ranging between 7% and 10%.
Your Company is pursuing several strategic initiatives in all key areas of business, tomaintain a healthy and sustainable growth for its Automotive Sector. Some of the keyelements of strategy include creating an active presence across various automotivesegments, continually refreshing and updating products and upgrading R&D andtechnology.
In addition, your Company is pursuing expansion in overseas markets through organic andinorganic routes. The acquisition of Ssangyong Motor Company Limited in 2011 is resultingin synergies in the areas of product development and sourcing and is also helping toexpand its global reach and network.
Further, in keeping with continued global focus on sustainable mobility driven byenvironmental concerns, your Company is also investing in alternate fuel technologies.Mahindra Reva is playing a vital role in this area by helping your Company remain at theforefront of these developments.
Farm Equipment Sector
The Farm Equipment Sector's strategy is aligned to delivering Farm Tech Prosperity tothe farmer. The core business of tractors will deliver this through its range of existingand future products that reduce drudgery and enhance farm productivity. At the same time,the business will continue to build on its position of global leadership in volumes acrossmajor markets around the world. In addition, your Company will offer a wider range ofmechanisation solutions to make life easier and more prosperous for farmers. This willenable the organisation to offer farmers a range of inputs and know-how. All thesetogether will thus lead to greater farm productivity and deliver prosperity, strengtheningthe Company's leadership position.
Material Developments in Human Resources / Industrial Relations for Automotive and Farm
The strategic purpose of Human Resources in the Mahindra Group continued to be thecreation of a culture of sustained business outperformance while simultaneously addressingthe needs of all its stakeholders, starting with customers and employees, andstrengthening the core values of the Group. In the long run, the metric for success wouldbe improvements in the total factor productivity, while addressing the businessimperatives of cash, cost, competence and confidence. The emphasis was on aligning all theHR levers towards achieving these goals.
A major challenge for HR during the year was to create a detailed plan of action forbringing the RISE pillars - accepting no limits, alternative thinking and driving positivechange - into the nuts and bolts of the HR levers. This is a gigantic task which broughttogether business and HR professionals from across the Group to formulate a detailedroll-out plan over the next few years. It also created a platform for sharing bestpractices which would take the Company to the next orbit.
In this overall architecture, some key strategic initiatives that need mention areemployer branding, the employee value proposition, the template for creating Tomorrow'sLeaders and harnessing the power of diversity (across its many dimensions which includegender, age, nationality and culture). There was huge focus on the Talent Management andLeadership Development process which included Development Centres, Individual DevelopmentPlanning, e-learning, up-skilling programs, Leadership Lifecycle programs andaction-learning projects. This was supplemented by a continuous dialogue with topmanagement through Intranet and Fireside Chats.
An important development was the establishment of an ongoing partnership with theCentre for Creative Leadership USA, one of the world's leading executive educationproviders, to deliver leadership lifecycle programs for early, emerging and seniorleaders.
HR continued to harness the power of IT through Project Harmony, which now covers 24 HRprocesses across the Group.
Needless to say, all the initiatives mentioned above need to apply not only to Officersbut also to the blue collar workforce. To that extent, the ongoing 'Transformational WorkCulture' initiatives have grown both in depth and width of coverage. It must, however, benoted that while Industrial Relations largely remained cordial and harmonious during theyear, the overall industrial relations climate in the country is volatile, especially theissue of contract labour. In this context, training and engagement programs were organisedacross locations for developing personal, interpersonal and technical skills of theCompany's workmen. These training programs covered a wide range of topics which includedPositive Attitude, Stress Management, Creativity, Team Effectiveness, Safety andEnvironment, Quality Tools, TPM, Dexterity and Technical Training. The workmenparticipated wholeheartedly in the training programmes, in many cases on holidays or afterworking hours.
The permanent employee strength of Mahindra & Mahindra Limited as on 31stMarch, 2012 was 17,847.
Internal Control Systems
The Company maintains adequate internal control systems which provide, among otherthings, reasonable assurance of recording the transactions of its operations in allmaterial respects and of providing protection against significant misuse or loss ofCompany assets. The Company uses an Enterprise Resource Planning ("ERP")package, which enhances the internal control mechanism. The Company has a strong andindependent internal audit function. The Chief Internal Auditor reports directly to theChairman of the Board. Professionally qualified, technical and financial personnel of theinternal audit function conduct periodic audits to ensure that the Company's internalcontrol systems are adequate and are complied with.
Discussion on financial performance with respect to operational performance
The financial statements have been prepared in compliance with the requirements of theCompanies Act, 1956 and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India.
The Group's consolidated financial statements have been prepared in compliance with thestandard AS 21 on Consolidation of Accounts and presented in a separate section. TheCompany has provided segment reporting on a consolidated basis as per standard AS 17 onsegment reporting. This information appears along with the consolidated accounts.
Financial Information (Standalone)
As at 31st March 2012, the Fixed Assets was Rs. 5,080.75 crores as comparedto Rs. 3,906.59 crores as at 31st March, 2011. During the year, the Companyincurred capital expenditure of Rs. 1,368.03 crores (previous year Rs. 1,152.51 crores).The major items of capital expenditure were related to new product development, capacityenhancement and research and development including on the Company's research facility inChennai. This included purchase of Intangible assets aggregating to Rs. 267.28 crores(previous year Rs. 191.03 crores).
| ||March 31, 2012 ||March 31, 2011 |
|Raw materials and bought out components as a % of cost of materials consumed ||4.43% ||5.33% |
|Finished goods as a % of sales of products ||3.73% ||2.66% |
The reduction in raw material and bought out components as a percentage of consumptionis due to better materials planning and control. However, finished goods as a percentagehave increased during the current year due to the slowdown being witnessed in the tractormarket in the closing months of the year.
Trade Receivables amounts to Rs. 1,988.36 crores as at March 31, 2012, as compared withRs. 1,260.31 crores as at March 31, 2011. As a percentage of sales of products andservices, the trade receivable is higher at 5.87% for the year ended March 31, 2012, ascompared to 5.01% for the previous year. The increase in the trade receivable levelsduring the current year is due to stiff competition and slowdown in the tractor market.
Long Term and Short Term Borrowings:
Borrowings (including current maturities of long term debt and unclaimed matureddeposits) have increased from Rs. 2,405.29 crores in the previous year to Rs. 3,582.67crores in the current year. The increase is primarily on account of increased foreigncurrency borrowings in the current year.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
| || || ||(Rs. crores) |
|Particulars || |
| ||Amount ||% ||Amount ||% ||% |
|Sale of Products ||33,531.33 ||105.27 ||24,795.02 ||105.69 ||35.23 |
|Sale of Services ||361.69 ||1.13 ||341.72 ||1.46 ||5.84 |
|Other Operating Revenues ||461.49 ||1.45 ||418.28 ||1.78 ||10.33 |
|Gross Sales & Income from Operations ||34,354.51 ||107.85 ||25,555.02 ||108.93 ||34.43 |
|Less : Excise Duty on Sales ||2,500.99 ||7.85 ||2,094.76 ||8.93 ||19.39 |
|Net Sales & Income from Operations ||31,853.52 ||100.00 ||23,460.26 ||100.00 ||35.78 |
|Other Income ||465.79 ||1.46 ||434.15 ||1.85 ||7.29 |
Net Sales, Income from Operations and Other Income:
The net sales and income from operations of the Company grew by 35.78 % over theprevious year on a growth of 47.54% in the automotive business and 19.61% in the Company'stractor business. This growth in the businesses was due to the increased volumes in boththe domestic and export markets.
Other income during Financial Year 2012 at Rs. 465.79 crores is higher than Rs. 434.15crores earned in the previous year due to higher dividend income from subsidiaries andother miscellaneous income.
| || || ||(Rs. crores) |
|Particulars || |
| ||Amount ||% to Net Sales and Income from Operations ||Amount ||% to Net Sales and Income from Operations ||% |
|Material Costs ||23,499.77 ||73.77 ||16,263.94 ||69.33 ||44.49 |
|Employee Benefits Expense ||1,701.78 ||5.34 ||1,431.52 ||6.10 ||18.88 |
|Finance Costs ||162.75 ||0.51 ||72.49 ||0.31 ||124.51 |
|Depreciation and Amortisation Expense ||576.14 ||1.81 ||413.86 ||1.76 ||39.21 |
|Other expenses ||2,881.25 ||9.05 ||2,310.47 ||9.85 ||24.70 |
|Total Expenses ||28,821.69 ||90.48 ||20,492.28 ||87.35 ||40.65 |
The total expenditure during the year as a percentage of net sales and income fromoperations is 90.48 % as compared to 87.35% in the previous year.
For the year ended 31st March, 2012, material cost has increased by 44.49%which is higher than the increase in net sales and income from operations. Material costas a percentage to net sales and income from operations increased to 73.77% in FinancialYear 2012 as compared with 69.33% in Financial Year 2011. The increase in material costhas been largely driven by the hike in input cost due to higher commodity prices, changesin product mix and cost of compliance with regulatory norms. The above were partiallyoffset through selling price increase and continued cost reduction initiatives undertakenby the Company.
Personnel cost has increased by 18.88% to Rs. 1,701.78 crores from Rs. 1,431.52 croresin the previous year. This is mainly due to increase in strength and annual incrementsduring the year.
Other expenses as a percentage of net sales and operating income shows a decrease overthe previous year. However, expenses in absolute terms are higher due to greater marketingrelated expenses on warranty, incentives, advertisement and sales promotion due toincreased volumes, professional fees and brand building.
Depreciation and Amortisation:
The depreciation and amortisation for the year ended 31st March, 2012 is atRs. 576.14 crores as compared to Rs. 413.86 crores in the previous year. This is due tothe impact in the current year on account capitalization of assets during the year andincreased amortisation of intangibles.
The interest expense for the year ended 31st March, 2012 is Rs. 162.75crores, as compared to Rs. 72.49 crores in the previous year. This is mainly due to newborrowings during the year and in the last quarter of the previous year.
The profit from Exceptional Items during the year ended 31st March, 2012 isRs. 108.27 crores as against Rs. 117.48 crores in the previous year. The profit in thecurrent year is on account of reversal of provision for impairment of assets of theautomotive division of Mahindra Automobile Distributor Private Limited (MADPL) which hasbeen demerged into your Company. In the previous year, it was on account of profit earnedon sale of certain shares.
Provision for taxation:
The provision for current tax and deferred tax for the year ended 31stMarch, 2012 as a percentage to profit before tax is lower than the previous year. This isdue to unabsorbed tax losses of the automotive division of Mahindra Automobile DistributorPrivate Limited (MADPL) which became available on the merger of the automotive business ofMADPL with the Company, increased research and development expenditure and higher tax freedividend income in Financial Year 2012.
Consolidated Financial Position of the Mahindra Group
As on 31st March, 2012 the Group comprised of the flagship holding company,Mahindra & Mahindra Limited, 114 Subsidiaries, 6 Joint Ventures and 11 Associates.
The Gross turnover for the year ended 31st March, 2012 for the ConsolidatedMahindra Group is Rs. 63,357.80 crores as against Rs. 39,864.40 crores for the previousyear. The Group's net turnover grew by 60.69% to Rs. 59,744.95 crores in the current yearfrom Rs. 37,180.62 crores in Financial Year 2011. The profit before exceptional items andtax for the current year is Rs. 4,122.76 crores as compared to Rs. 4,310.84 crores in theprevious year. The consolidated Group Profit for the year after exceptional items, priorperiod adjustments and tax and after deducting minority interest is Rs. 3,126.66 crores asagainst Rs. 3,079.73 crores earned last year. The commendable growth in Group revenuesduring the year is due to the inclusion of the turnover of Ssangyong Motor Company Limitedduring the year. The sluggish growth in Group profits is also to some extent due to theinclusion of Ssangyong results. Excluding Ssangyong, the growth in consolidated grossrevenues is 28.13% and that in profits is 14.46%.
Tech Mahindra Limited, the Group's IT arm, registered a revenue (consolidated) of Rs.5,489.69 crores as against Rs. 5,140.23 crores in Financial Year 2011 - an increase of6.80%. On the back of a strong performance by its associate company, Satyam ComputerServices Limited, Tech Mahindra's consolidated profit grew by 70.06% from Rs. 644.15crores in the previous year to Rs. 1,095.46 crores in the current year.
The Group's Finance company, Mahindra & Mahindra Financial Services Limited(consolidated), while maintaining its leadership position for vehicles and tractors in therural and semi-urban markets crossed the two million mark in terms of customer base with a35% growth in disbursements. With its efficient NPA management, the Company maintainedhealthy growth in its profit in spite of increased borrowing cost. It reported a totalconsolidated income of Rs. 2,910.36 crores during the current year as compared to Rs.2,038.59 crores in the last year, a growth of 42.76%. The consolidated profit after taxfor the Financial Year 2012 grew by 30.59% from Rs. 492.77 crores in the previous year toRs. 643.50 crores in the current year.
Mahindra Lifespace Developers Limited, the Group's subsidiary in the business of realestate and infrastructure grew its consolidated operating income from Rs. 611.93 crores toRs. 701.27 crores, an increase of 14.6%. The consolidated profit after tax after minorityinterest for the year, increased from Rs. 108.17 crores in the previous year to Rs. 119.08crores in the current year.
Segment Results (before exceptional item)
The results achieved by major business segments of the Group are given below:
| || ||(Rs. Crores) |
|Segments ||Financial Year 2012 ||Financial Year 2011 |
|1. Automotive ||1,156.81 ||1,641.18 |
|2. Farm Equipment ||1,924.54 ||1,690.67 |
|3. Financial Services ||953.48 ||745.01 |
|4. Steel Trading & Processing ||122.84 ||85.38 |
|5. Infrastructure ||198.00 ||173.06 |
|6. Hospitality ||131.94 ||139.27 |
|7. IT Services ||424.54 ||445.91 |
|8. Systech ||225.68 ||93.31 |
|9. Others ||(257.63) ||(184.69) |
|10. Eliminations ||(131.52) ||10.61 |
|Total ||4,748.68 ||4,839.71 |
Certain statements in the Management Discussion and Analysis describing the Company'sobjectives, projections, estimates, expectations or predictions may be"forward-looking statements" within the meaning of applicable securities lawsand regulations. Actual results could differ from those expressed or implied. Importantfactors that could make a difference to the Company's operations include raw materialavailability and prices, cyclical demand and pricing in the Company's principal markets,changes in Government regulations, tax regimes, economic developments within India and thecountries in which the Company conducts business and other incidental factors.