Provisional results of Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) 2010-11, conducted by Central Statistics Office and National Sample Survey Office under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation have been released. The survey provides information on factories registered under Factories Act, 1948 and Bidi and Cigar establishments registered under the Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966. Field work for the survey was carried out during 2011-12 throughout the country with a reference period coinciding with the fiscal year 2010-2011. Total sample size for the survey was 61,573 which represented about 27% of the total population and was drawn adopting stratified circular systematic sampling procedure. The highlights of the provisional results are as follows:
Principal Aggregates – All India
Annexure-I presents the estimates for principal characteristics for all industries taken together at all-India level for 2010-11 with comparative estimates for the preceding five years.
Industry-wise and state-wise performances of few characteristics are given below:
Number of factories
Total number of estimated factories1 is 2,11,660, which is 33.22% higher than that of the last year. Among the industries, highest number of factories is observed in ‘Food products’, which accounts for about 16.1% of the total factories in all industries followed by ‘Other non-metallic mineral products’ (11%) and ‘Textiles’ (8.8%). Among the states, highest number of factories is observed in Tamil Nadu (17.4%), followed by Maharashtra (13.2%), Andhra Pradesh (12.4%), Gujarat (10.1%) and Uttar Pradesh (6.5%).
At all India level, fixed capital in current prices has grown by 19% as against 28% in the last year. In constant prices (2004-05), the growth remains 12.5% in 2010-2011 as against 25% in the previous year. Highest fixed capital is observed in the ‘Basic Metal’ industry (21.7%), followed by ‘Coke and Refined Petroleum Products’ (9.6%). At state level, Gujarat has the highest fixed capital share (17%), followed byMaharashtra (14.5%), Andhra Pradesh (10%), Tamil Nadu (9.2%) and Odisha (7.1%).
Employment and Emoluments
Employment in terms of total persons engaged has increased by 7.8% at all India, over the previous year, whereas the emolument (compensation) to employees has increased by 24.8% in current prices and 18.1% in real terms. Among all industries, ‘Food products’ generated the highest employment (12.2%), followed by ‘Textiles’ (11.5%) , ‘Basic metals’ (8%), ‘Other non-metallic mineral products’ (7.3%) and ‘Wearing apparel’ (6.9%). Performance of top ten states in terms of employment, along with their percentage share in all India employment figure is given below:
In terms of emoluments or compensation to employees, ‘Basic Metal’ has the highest share (11.2%) followed by ‘Machinery and equipments’ (8.3%), ‘Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers’ (8%), ‘Food products’ (7.7%) and ‘Textiles’ (7.6%). Among the states, top five positions in term of compensation have been occupied by Maharashtra (19.2%), Tamil Nadu (13.1%), Gujarat (10.6%), Andhra Pradesh (7.7%) and Karnataka (7.2%).
Gross Value Added (GVA)
The gross value added has grown by 19.5% in current prices and 13.1% in constant (2004-05) prices. The corresponding growth in GVA in 2009-10 over 2008-09 was 14.1% and 11.6% respectively. By type of industry, the first three positions in terms of gross value addition have been occupied by ‘Basic Metals’ (12.2%), ‘Coke and Refined Petroleum Products’ (10.6%) and ‘Chemicals and chemical products’ (8.9%) respectively. Performance of top ten states in terms of GVA, along with their percentage share in all India GVA is given below:
Structural Ratios and Technical Coefficients
A few structural ratios and technical coefficients derived from the macro level estimates of principal characteristics for the current and the preceding four years have been given in Annexure-II.
The survey results revealed that in 2010-11, a factory with an average investment of Rs. 760 Lakhs in fixed capital have provided gainful employment to 60 persons, produced goods and services at ex-factory prices worth Rs. 2,214 Lakhs and contributed by way of net value added by manufacture Rs. 337 Lakhs to the national income. However, taking an employee as a unit of measurement, the survey revealed that an employee in the organized manufacturing sector during 2010-11 has, on an average, worked with a fixed capital stock of Rs.12,64,382, gave an output of Rs. 36,84,377 and contributed to the national income by way of net value added by manufacture Rs. 5,60,409. The corresponding averages in the preceding year were, respectively, Rs. 1,14,66,904, Rs. 31,65,721 and Rs. 4,02,779.
The capital output ratio which is a measure of the capital required to produce one unit of net output (net value added) has decreased marginally from 2.28 in 2009-10 to 2.26 in 2010-11. The capital required to produce one unit of gross output has also marginally decreased from 0.36 in 2009-10 to 0.34 in 2010-11. Level of efficiency (ratio of net value added to gross output) has, however, slightly decreased from 0.16 to 0.15. While the average number of employee working per factory has decreased from 74 in 2009-10 to 60 in 2010-11, average emoluments per employee has, however, increased from Rs. 1,24,666 to Rs. 1,44,251 in current prices during the same period.
Prior to ASI 2010-11, although the samples were drawn from domain of units with the statuses ‘open’, ‘closed’ and ‘non-operative’; separate procedure was followed for estimating the “number of factories” and “number of factories in operation”. While the units with the status code ‘1’ (i.e., open) only were considered as surveyed cases for estimating the “number of factories in operation”, the units with the status codes ‘1’ and ‘2’ (i.e., open and closed respectively) were considered as surveyed cases for estimating the “number of factories”, and accordingly the multipliers (weights) were calculated. Now, all the units with codes ‘1’, ‘2’ and ‘3’, that is, all units with ‘open’, ‘closed’ and ‘NOP’ statuses are similarly placed and are considered as surveyed cases for estimating the “number of factories” and multipliers (weights) were calculated accordingly. After deriving the estimates mentioned above, all the rates and ratios are derived for per “number of factories”. The earlier method, if followed, will result in 8% growth in the number of units during 2010-11compared to 2009-10.
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