Last time we discussed the overall goals and discussed their purpose in brief ,the concept of human development,HDR,HDI,INDIAS FRAMEWORK: MDG TRACKING, Highlights of Indiaâ€™s progress to MDGs ,factors of economic development, role of growth, theory of economic growth and development.
In this part (part 2), we will discuss the resolution adopted by the UN general assembly to create the millennium declaration
The world leaders who had assembled at the UN for a Millennium Summit agreed on a Millennium Declaration that was truly an expression of a global social democratic consensus. It covered a lot of ground. Beginning with a statement of shared values, it formulated a set of goals covering a spectrum of issues. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a part of this commitment.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries, including 147 heads of State and Government, in September 2000.
The eight (8) Goals as under:
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Goal 3:Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and TB
Goal 7:Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Goal 8:Develop Global Partnership for Development
Eighteen (18) targets were set as quantitative benchmarks for attaining the goals. The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) in its 2nd Guidance note (endorsed in 2003) on â€˜Country Reporting on the Millennium Development Goalsâ€™ provided a framework of 53 indicators (48 basic + 5 alternative) which are categorized according to targets, for measuring the progress towards individual targets. Indiaâ€™s MDG framework recognizes all the 53 indicators that UNDGâ€™s 2003 framework for monitoring of the 8 MDGs. However, India has found 35 of the indicators as relevant to India. Indiaâ€™s MDG-framework has been contextualized through a concordance with the existing official indicators of corresponding dimensions in the national statistical system.
The UN General Assembly has provided the basic premises for the millennium declaration.
The General Assembly Adopted the following broad Declarations which provided the guideline for forming the millennium development goals. The broad declarations include
I. Values and principles
II. Peace, security and disarmament
III. Development and poverty eradication
IV. Protecting our common environment
V. Human rights, democracy and good governance
VI. Protecting the vulnerable
VII. Meeting the special needs of Africa
VIII. Strengthening the United Nations
Let us discuss in detail each of these declarations. To quote United Nations Millennium Declaration (Verbatim)
â€œ The General Assembly Adopts the following Declaration:
I. Values and principles
1. We, heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.
2. We recognize that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the worldâ€™s people, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs.
3. We reaffirm our commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, which have proved timeless and universal. Indeed, their relevance and capacity to inspire have increased, as nations and peoples have become increasingly interconnected and interdependent.
4. We are determined to establish a just and lasting peace all over the world in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter. We rededicate ourselves to support all efforts to uphold the sovereign equality of all States, respect for their territorial integrity and political independence, resolution of disputes by peaceful means and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, the right to self-determination of peoples which remain under colonial domination and foreign occupation, non-interference in the internal affairs of States, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for the equal rights of all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion and international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character.
According to the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the fundamental values to be essential to international relations in the twenty-first century include:
Freedom. Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people best assures these rights.
Equality. No individual and no nation must be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured.
Solidarity. Global challenges must be managed in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most.
Tolerance. Human beings must respect one other, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of peace and dialogue among all civilizations should be actively
Respect for nature. Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only in this way can the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be preserved and passed on to our descendants. The current unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the interest of our future welfare and that of our descendants.
Shared responsibility. Responsibility for managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as threats to internat
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