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A brief history on the Sensex
The S&P BSE Sensex (short for Sensitive Index), or just the Sensex, as it is known, is an index of actively traded stocks of 30 financially stable and well-performing organizations representing various industrial sectors. The market capitalization and liquidity of these stocks is what makes them eligible for this list.
The list includes industry heavyweights from different sectors like TCS, SBI, HDFC Bank, Reliance Industries, Infosys, ONGC, ITC, Sun Pharmaceuticals, SBI, Tata Motors, and Maruti Suzuki, among others. The index assigns weight to each of these 30 stocks and depending on the movement in these stocks the index goes either up or down. However, over 5,000 stocks are actively traded on the index.
The index is calculated using the free-float of the 30 stocks multiplied by their market cap. This number is then divided by the present level of the index to find the value of the Sensex.
The index is managed by a committee comprising fund managers, academicians, finance journalists, and market participants, among others. Given its long historic data and wide acceptance, the index is often called the pulse of the Indian stock markets.
The index was originally published in 1986 with a base value of 100 and with the base year as 1978-1979. The base value was set at 100 to make calculations easy and so that percentage change could be represented logically. For example, if the market capitalization of the stocks on the index rose by 10%, the index would accordingly rise 10% to 110.
Selection of Sensex constituents
The stocks on the Sensex are chosen based on the following factors
- Industry representation: Only industry heavyweights are chosen to represent their sector.
- Market capitalization: The company’s market cap should be among the top on the index. Also, it should be more than 0.5% of the index’s total market cap.
- Frequency of trading: The company should be active (live) on the exchange for at least one year. Exemption can be made is specific situations like share suspension, etc.
- Average daily trade: The average number of shares traded per day in the last one year should be among the Top 150.
- Average daily turnover: The average value of the shares traded per day in the last one year should be among the Top 150.
Free-float market capitalization methodology
The constituents of the Sensex are calculated according to the free-float market capitalization method. Free-float means the total number of share available to the public for trade. This excludes promoter holding or any holding apart from the public. Consequently, a company’s free-float market cap would be, number of shares available to public * market price of each share. So, if a company has 20lakh shares available to the public, and each share is valued at Rs150, the free-float market capitalization of the company will be 20,00,000*150 = Rs30cr.
However, it should be kept in mind that the Sensex constituents are market leaders and each of them easily have a market cap ranging in ‘thousand crores’.
Sensex Listed Companies
|Company Name||CMP||High||Low||Script Code|
|Asian Paints Ltd||1,300.00||1,314.00||1,291.25||23,098|
|Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd||1,820.15||1,857.00||1,815.50||67,305|
|Hero MotoCorp Ltd||3,470.00||3,573.30||3,470.00||25,208|
|Hindustan Unilever Ltd||1,578.90||1,619.45||1,572.15||50,465|
|Larsen & Toubro Ltd||1,314.00||1,337.15||1,311.00||99,549|
|Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd||825.60||846.85||822.00||233,775|
|Reliance Industries Ltd||931.95||935.40||922.00||233,114|
|Tata Motors Ltd||296.55||307.35||295.10||759,795|
|Tata Steel Ltd||576.90||600.50||575.10||482,713|
|Dr Reddys Laboratories Ltd||1,894.35||1,984.20||1,888.00||34,056|
|State Bank of India||245.10||245.85||240.25||1,389,712|
|Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd||1,273.90||1,299.95||1,266.00||65,221|
|Sun Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd||443.80||467.00||442.20||422,610|
|HDFC Bank Ltd||1,991.90||2,021.90||1,986.05||34,527|
|Tata Consultancy Services Ltd||3,557.95||3,591.85||3,510.00||68,336|
|ICICI Bank Ltd||289.65||293.00||287.50||416,007|
|Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd||212.95||214.00||211.75||296,794|
|Maruti Suzuki India Ltd||8,428.15||8,523.95||8,260.05||46,282|
|IndusInd Bank Ltd||1,921.30||1,947.00||1,912.25||17,820|
|Axis Bank Ltd||528.70||560.00||521.35||296,830|
|Oil & Natural Gas Corpn Ltd||185.85||188.65||184.30||194,323|
|Coal India Ltd||269.75||271.25||264.00||94,574|
|Bharti Airtel Ltd||360.20||369.00||356.10||153,260|
|Adani Ports & Special Economic Zone Ltd||387.00||397.80||381.75||57,446|
|Yes Bank Ltd||334.15||349.25||333.30||428,906|
|Bajaj Auto Ltd||2,719.90||2,777.00||2,705.25||22,686|