Difference Between FDI And FII

Nations are now more linked than ever in the modern, globalized world. The growth and development of economies rely heavily on foreign investments, which have increased as a result of this. In this context, the words foreign institutional investment (FII) and foreign direct investment (FDI) are frequently employed. No doubt these FDI and FII full form seem similar, but there are a number of key differences between them. So, let’s explore what is FDI and FII in detail.

What is FDI?

The term "Foreign Direct Investment," or "FDI," describes making investments abroad. It is thought to act as an impetus for economic growth and entails direct capital outflows from one nation to another. The Reserve Bank of India states that foreign organizations, corporations, and people who live outside of India are all eligible to invest in foreign direct investment (FDI). Moreover, they own at least 10 percent of the post-issue paid-for equity capital of listed Indian firms on a fully diluted basis, or they may invest in unlisted Indian enterprises.

What is FII?

"Foreign Institutional Investor," or "FII," is the term used to describe investors who combine their capital to purchase foreign-domiciled national assets. Institutional investors are foreign corporations that make investments in regional financial markets. It must be registered with the securities exchange board of the relevant nation in order to make the investment. Furthermore, FIIs include banks, hedge funds, mutual funds, insurance companies, and so forth. The economy of any country gains a great deal from FII. The market trend rises when a foreign company buys or invests in stocks, and vice versa if the investment is removed.

What is the Difference Between FDI And FII?



Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)


FDI involves a direct investment in physical assets or the acquisition of a significant ownership stake (usually at least 10%) in a foreign company.

FII refers to investments made by foreign institutions, such as mutual funds, hedge funds, and pension funds, in the financial markets of another country without acquiring a substantial ownership stake.


FDI typically entails a long-term commitment and significant control over the management and operations of the invested enterprise.

FII investments do not provide the investor with control or influence over the management of the invested entity.


The primary objective of FDI is to establish a lasting interest in a foreign enterprise, often to gain access to the latest markets, resources, or technology.

FIIs are generally motivated by short- to medium-term financial gains, such as capital appreciation, dividend income, or currency arbitrage.

Impact on Economy

FDI can contribute to economic growth by fostering job creation, technology transfer, infrastructure development, and productivity enhancement in the host country.

While FIIs can provide liquidity to financial markets and facilitate capital formation, they may also introduce volatility and increase the vulnerability of the host economy to external shocks.

Regulatory Framework

Governments often have specific policies and regulations governing FDI, which may include restrictions on foreign ownership, sectoral caps, and investment incentives.

FII investments are typically subject to less stringent regulations and are more easily reversible, allowing investors to enter quickly or exit positions in response to market conditions.



Importance of FDI and FII

Foreign Institutional Investment (FII) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are crucial for a country's economic growth. FII involves investment in financial assets like stocks and bonds, while FDI involves direct ownership of businesses or assets. Both play distinct roles in bolstering a nation's economy. Firstly, FII injects capital into financial markets, enhancing liquidity and stabilizing stock prices. Additionally, it facilitates portfolio diversification, attracting foreign investors and fostering market efficiency. On the other hand, FDI contributes to long-term economic development by promoting job creation, technology transfer, and infrastructure development. It establishes productive assets within the country, leading to sustainable growth and increased competitiveness in global markets. Furthermore, FDI often brings managerial expertise and innovative practices, stimulating domestic productivity and enhancing overall economic efficiency.

The Bottom Line

It is crucial to distinguish between FDI and FII since they have different functions and attributes. While FII is mainly concerned with short-term gains and has little influence over the company's operations, FDI entails a long-term commitment and control over the invested company. A nation's economic growth depends on both kinds of investments, and knowing how they differ can help decision-makers make well-informed choices.

Frequently Asked Questions Expand All

Regulatory barriers, political unpredictability, insufficient infrastructure, and intense international competitiveness are a few of the difficulties that nations face.

Both FDI and FII involve foreign entities investing in domestic businesses or financial markets, contribute to the host country's economy, and are subject to regulations and laws set by the host country.

The primary difference between FDI and FII lies in their purpose and nature of investment. While FDI involves a long-term commitment and control over the invested company, FII is focused on short-term gains with no control over the company's operations.

Countries can engage in infrastructure development, streamline rules and procedures, promote political stability and business climate, and provide investors with attractive incentives in order to draw in foreign capital. They can effectively compete for foreign investments by forming strategic alliances with other nations.